Academic Ranking and Leadership Opportunities Among Female and Male Cardiothoracic Surgeons in the Northeast Region of the United States
Chi Chi Do-Nguyen1, Elizabeth L. Norton, MS2, Jessica Figueredo, MS3, Alejandra Castro-Varela, MS4, Julie Qiu1, Sameer Hirji, MD5, Sarah Miter, MD6
1Philadelphia College of Osteopathic Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, USA, 2Creighton University School of Medicine, Omaha, NE, USA, 3Nova Southeastern University, Dr. Kiran C. Patel College of Osteopathic Medicine College of Osteopathic Medicine, Fort Lauderdale, FL, USA, 4Tecnologico de Monterrey, School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Monterrey, Mexico, 5Department of Surgery, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA, 6Department of Surgery, Inova Health System, Falls Church, VA, USA
OBJECTIVE: Only 11% of women in cardiothoracic surgery (CTS) acquired full professorship in 2018. We sought to investigate the current status of women in CTS in the Northeast region, comparing metrics associated with career advancement.
Methods: CTS programs were identified using the ACGME database. Faculty demographics and institutional characteristics were collected using institutional websites and the 2019-2020 US News & World Report ranking. Research productivity, including h-index (number of publications (h) cited at least h times) and m-index (h-index divided by research career duration), was calculated from Scopus.
RESULTS: There are 378 CTS teaching faculty members in the Northeast (88.9% male). Similar proportions of men and women acquired PhD degrees (7.4% and 7.1%, respectively). Both men and women were similarly productive in research with the number of publications (median of 42.5 and 42, respectively), h-index (13 and 13), m-index (0.75 and 0.75), and research career duration (20.5 and 20 years). However, fewer women advanced to professorship compared to men, with 47.6% as assistant, 19.0% as associate, and 7.1% as full professors (vs. 31.5%, 20.2%, and 24.4%, respectively). Fewer women held leadership positions, with 4.8% as program director, 11.9% as division chief, and 2.4% as chairperson (vs. 5.4%, 20.5%, and 5.7%).
Conclusions: Factors associated with academic ranking are similar between male and female CTS faculty members in the Northeast. However, women continue to make up a minority of senior faculty and leadership positions.
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